The Ria Formosa between Cacela Velha and Faro
Created in its current shape in 1755 by the last great oceanic earthquake, its sand dunes, islands and spits to the open sea are continuously shaped by tidal changes. Many archeological sites along the present coastline show the remains of Roman and Pre-Roman settlements and installations to catch and process tuna fish.
The scenery undergoes particularly dramatic changes with the spring tides, as the extensive mudflats are exposed at low tide followed by a continuous watery landscape just six hours later.
The islands and peninsulas of the Ria Formosa
The Ria Formosa lagoon is a system of barrier islands that link with the sea via 6 inlets. Five of these inlets were naturally made and have changeable aspects but the 6th is an artificial inlet that was created to facilitate access to Faro's port. Most of the popular beaches are located behind long sandy dunes on the sea side of the islands.
The islands east to west:
The major localities in the Ria Formosa
The best known and prettiest city in the eastern Algarve is Tavira, picturesquely situated on the estuary of the small river Rio Sequa, called Rio Gilão. Located on the coast east of Tavira is the popular holiday destination Cabanas de Tavira. Further to the west you will find Santa Luzia, which has a well founded reputation for its cuisine with octopus dishes (polvo), caught in the lagoon and also the holiday resort Pedras d’El Rei is found here.
The municipal town Olhão, located between Tavira and Faro, has a long tradition in the production of canned fish like tuna and sardines. It is only relatively recently that modern tourism has evolved here and in the nearby village of Fuseta. The fish market in Olhão is said to be one of the best in the entire Algarve.
Faro, the capital of the Algarve, is situated on the western end of the Ria Formosa. When approaching the airport by plane you get your first impression of the extensive lagoon landscape. The old historic town of Faro is one of the most notable places in the region.
The typical villages of Estoi and Moncarapacho, located a few miles inland, are still almost unspoilt by mass tourism; although several rural hotels can be found in these peaceful surroundings.
The ecological importance of the Ria Formosa
The salt marshes, sandbanks, dunes and estuaries of the Ria form an internationally important breeding, wintering and staging area for numerous species of water birds, and many migrating birds stop over here on their passage south. Oystercatchers, egrets, ibis, cranes and even flamingos can frequently be seen wading through the mudflats.
The lagoon links to the sea through 6 inlets. This constant exchange provides the Ria Formosa with the clean, oxygen-rich Atlantic water for which it is famous – and this applies equally to the fish world. Since the mid-eighties, the Ria Formosa has been a nature reserve, where sea water birds can find protected breeding places and many fish species of the Northern Atlantic as well as other marine organisms reproduce.
The commercial use is limited to special areas such as sea salt basins and mussel banks. The excellent water quality, without detectable contamination by industrial effluents, sewage dumping, agricultural and radioactive pollutants, favors the traditional gathering of sea salt. Besides salt harvesting, other activities in this protected area are shellfish farming and small-scale fishing. Conquilhas, or wedge clams, as well as razor shells and cockles are not cultivated, but gathered by professional mariscadores, and sold on to Lisbon, or to local restaurants.